Urinary stones also known as kidney stones are solid masses made of crystals and usually originated from kidneys. These stones cause unbearable pain and discomfort when they move in the urinary tract. Kidney stones vary in size. There are different kinds of kidney stones depending upon their composition. It is one of the most painful medical conditions.

  • Calcium stones get formed because of the high intake of calcium oxalate in food (potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets and spinach). One should eat food with less oxalate and increase calcium intake to reduce the risk of stone formation.
  • High concentration of uric acid in urine cause the formation of Uric acid stone. These kinds of stones are more common in males than females. Urine becomes acidic when the amount of purine increases in the body. Purine is a colourless substance found in animal proteins.
  • Struvite is another kind of stone found in women with urinary tract infections. Treating UTIs can prevent the development of stones. These stones are large and cause urinary obstruction.
  • Cystine stones occur both in men and women with cystinuria, a genetic disorder.

There are different stone removal procedures. The smaller stones can be easily disposed of while urination however, larger stones require surgery as they get stuck in the urinary tract.

One of the procedures used for treating kidney stone problems in the minimally invasive way is Laser Urinary Stone Surgery. This surgery involves the placing of a ureteroscope under the effect of anaesthesia into the urethra and urinary bladder. This instrument helps in the easy identification of stones in the kidney and ureter.


There aren’t any definite or single cause for the occurrence of urinary stones. Some of the factors causing urinary stones are :

  • Chronic Diarrhoea
  • Family History
  • Lack of water
  • High Blood Sugar
  • More crystal-forming content in urine


Kidney stones don’t show any symptoms until they lack movements in the kidney or passes into the ureters. They block the flow of urine from the ureter and cause the swelling of the kidneys, which is very painful. Some of the common signs and symptoms experienced during urinary stones are:

  • Severe and sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Burning sensation and pain while urinating
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills in case of infection
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Pink, red and brown urine
  • Pain comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity


Preparation of surgery

  • Medicines such as Vitamin E, Mortin, Aspirin, etc. should be discontinued a week before surgery.
  • Urine culture tests should be conducted one week prior to surgery.
  • The patient has to maintain an empty stomach before the night of surgery.

During the surgery

  • Anaesthesia is given to the patient and a small instrument known as the Ureteroscope is placed into the urethra and urinary bladder for easier visibility of the stones.
  • Laser energy is passed through the instrument that breaks the stones into smaller pieces. A small basket is used for the removal of stones from the urethra and some pieces are passed through urine.

Post-operative surgery

  • Pain will be experienced after laser surgery. Medications should be taken in such cases.
  • Driving should be avoided for one or two days
  • Prolonged lying and sitting is not advisable
  • Stay hydrated
  • Exercising should be avoided till not approved by the doctor.
  • Burning sensation while urinating for few days.

The person who has developed urinary stones in their life are likely to develop them again. To prevent this, it is advisable to make required changes in lifestyle and diet.

Benefits of Laser Treatment over Open surgery

Open Surgery Laser Surgery
Technology Indigenous Advanced
Cuts Multiple Minimally Invasive
Stiches Multiple No Stiches
Pain Painful Painless
Blood Loss High No blood loss
Recovery 1-2 weeks 2-3 days
Hospital Stay 3-4 days Outpatient procedure